Law is a set of rules enforceable by governmental institutions, social organizations, and private individuals. It ensures that people’s rights are protected, including property rights, contract rights, and procedural rights.
The legal system can be divided into common law, civil law, and international law. In these systems, law is based on statutes, judicial decisions, and regulations. Commonly, law is made by the government, or by an executive. However, laws can also be created by private individuals, such as through arbitration agreements.
Common legal issues include family law, immigration, debt, consumer rights, and housing problems. These legal problems can arise from sudden events or planned ones. A legal issue can also occur when someone is accused of a crime. If the court finds that someone broke a law, they can be jailed or fined.
Laws are typically created by a government, a legislature, or by a single legislator. They are then enforced by an administrative body, such as the police, or by the courts. Many countries have a civil procedure system that outlines the rules of the courts. This system consists of a number of articles, which describe the basic legal structure and the relationships among various aspects of the law, such as ideology and political parties.
Unlike common law, which is based on statutes, case law is based on concrete facts. Case law involves unique disputes, and the outcome of the case depends on the court’s interpretation of the law.
The United Nations has established the International Law Commission to promote progressive development of international law. The commission is composed of 34 members from the world’s principal legal systems. Each member is an expert in their own field and serves as an independent advisor on issues related to international law. Members of the International Law Commission prepare drafts on topics of international law, and consult with the United Nations specialized agencies.
The law has become a vital part of our access to justice. Several countries offer a Bachelor of Laws (LLB), which allows students to qualify for practice. Some universities also offer a BSc in Law. Both degrees are designed to prepare students for legal careers. Depending on the country, a law student may take courses aimed at preparing him or her for a specific career or pursuing academic research.
Common aspects of the legal system include the doctrine of precedent, which enables courts to bind future decisions of the same court. There are also canons of interpretation, which allow a statutory interpretation to be possible.
Other aspects of law include the concepts of natural law and the concept of morality. These are important to understanding the social role of law. Natural law, for example, originated in ancient Greek philosophy, and has been reintroduced into mainstream culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas.
During the 18th century, utilitarian theories held the dominant position in law. This concept is sometimes used to refer to the idea that the laws are governed by the needs of the community, and are not subject to individual choice.